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All of the following are examples of rank-order variables EXCEPT:

a tennis player’s standing compared to other athletes in the region |
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a runner’s place finished in a race |
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a student’s rank in his or her graduating class |
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a student’s level of stress just before an exam |

Which of the following is NOT an example of a nominal variable?

Hair color |
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Social security number |
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Religious affiliation |
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Score on an IQ test |

In a histogram, the vertical dimension displays:

mean score |
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possible values the variable can have |
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frequency |
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intensity of the variable |

1. A researcher rates participants’ empathic responses to the distress of strangers on a scale of 1 to 10. Most participants were rated either 3 or 7. How would this distribution be described?

bimodal |
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unimodal |
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rectangular |
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normal |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 11**

1. On the first exam in an introductory statistics course, most students did very well, and only a few did poorly. How would you describe the distribution of test scores?

having a floor effect |
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positively skewed |
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symmetrical |
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negatively skewed |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 12**

1. On an exam in a cognitive psychology class, most students attained a perfect score. This is an example of:

a symmetrical distribution |
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a ceiling effect |
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a floor effect |
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a bimodal distribution |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 13**

1. When a distribution is positively skewed, it means that:

the scores are evenly distributed |
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there are more scores piled up at the high end of the range |
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there is a ceiling effect |
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there are more scores piled up at the low end of the range |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 14**

1. When a distribution is negatively skewed, it is likely that:

there is a ceiling effect |
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there is a floor effect |
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there are more scores piled up at the low end of the range |
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the distribution is approximately normal and symmetrical |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 15**

1. In some cases, researchers describe a distribution in terms of whether its tails have many or few scores in them. This aspect of the shape of a distribution is known as:

kurtosis |
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symmetry |
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queue |
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z-transformation |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 16**

1. When a distribution is heavy-tailed, it means that:

it is skewed to the right |
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it has a pinched appearance with few scores at the extremes (tails) |
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it has a flat appearance with many scores at the extremes (tails) |
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it is skewed to the left |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 17**

1. A researcher observes the level of aggression of six 5-year-old boys over the course of a school day. The number of incidents for the group of boys was 2, 4, 6, 12, 8, 10. What is the mean number of aggressive acts for this group of children?

**2 points **

**QUESTION 18**

1. Five people’s scores on a survey of product recognition are 17, 12, 20, 13, 8. What is their mean score?

**2 points **

**QUESTION 19**

1. What is the mode of the following scores: 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 10, 30, 10, 30, 4, 3, 8?

**2 points **

**QUESTION 20**

1. What is the median of the following group of scores: 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 6, 8, 10?

**2 points **

**QUESTION 21**

1. What is the median of the following scores: 4, 4, 6, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 11, 2, 1, 4?

8.5 |
||

5.5 |
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6.5 |
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4 |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 22**

1. A Canadian political scientist discovers that the number of members of their provincial parliament that a group of voters can name is as follows: 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 35.

Upon examination of these scores, the researcher would probably decide to use which measure of the typical value?

Mode |
||

Median |
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Standard deviation |
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Mean |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 23**

1. Which statement is true for the scores 1, 2, 3, 5, 5, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13?

the median is greater than the mean |
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the median is greater than the mode |
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the mode is greater than the mean |
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the mode is greater than the median |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 24**

1. When a distribution is positively skewed:

the median is greater than the mean |
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the mean and median are the same |
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the mean and the median are equal |
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the mean is greater than the median |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 25**

1. The ________ is the usual way of describing the representative value for a nominal variable such as religious affiliation.

outlier |
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mean |
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median |
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mode |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 26**

1. In a distribution with an even number of scores, the *median* will be the:

the median divided by the mean |
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the sum of scores divided by N-1 |
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average of the two middle scores |
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most common value |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 27**

1. Unless there are _________, behavioral and social scientists generally use the mean as the measure of the representative value of a group of scores.

two modes |
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histograms |
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outliers |
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z scores |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 28**

1. Place the five steps for computing variance into the correct order:

1. Divide the sum of squared deviations by the number of scores

2. Subtract the mean from each score

3. Add up the squared deviation scores

4. Compute the mean of the sample

5. Square each of the deviation scores

4, 5, 2, 1, 3 |
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5, 1, 2, 4, 3 |
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4, 2, 5, 3, 1 |
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2, 3, 1, 4, 5 |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 29**

1. In a class of students in which everyone is exactly 24 yeares old, the variance would be:

approximately 1 |
||

exactly 0 |
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impossible to determine without more information |
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between 0 and 1 |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 30**

1. Roughly speaking, the standard deviation is the average amount that scores differ from the:

histogram |
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range |
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mean |
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median |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 31**

1. The standard deviation of a group of scores is 4. What is the variance?

**2 points **

**QUESTION 32**

1. What is the standard deviation of these four scores: 2, 4, 3, 7?

2.35 |
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1.87 |
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4.05 |
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3.50 |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 33**

1. In a distribution of z-scores, the mean is always:

**2 points **

**QUESTION 34**

1. Copy of

In a distribution of z-scores, the standard deviation is always:

**2 points **

**QUESTION 35**

1. For a particular group of scores, M=20 and SD=5. What is the z-score for a raw score of 10?

**2 points **

**QUESTION 36**

1. For a particular group of scores, M=15 and SD=3. Provide a raw score for a z-score of 7.

**2 points **

**QUESTION 37**

1. A study found that absenteeism from work had a negative linear correlation with job satisfaction. This means that:

the lower the level of job satisfaction, the higher the level of absenteeism. |
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the lower the level of job satisfaction, the lower the level of absenteeism. |
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level of job satisfaction is unrelated to absenteeism. |
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the higher the level of job satisfaction, the higher the level of absenteeism. |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 38**

1. You are interested in the relation between number of years working for a particular company and loneliness at work. You survey 50 workers at this company and find a correlation coefficient of -0.09. This is considered a:

strong positive linear correlation |
||

weak negative linear correlation |
||

strong negative linear correlation |
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weak positive linear correlation |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 39**

1. You conduct a study in which you measure two political attitudes and find a correlation of +0.70. This is considered a:

weak positive linear correlation |
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strong negative linear correlation |
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weak negative linear correlation |
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strong positive linear correlation |

**2 points **

**QUESTION 40**

1. Place the four steps for computing the correlation coefficient into the correct order:

1. Add up the cross-products of z-scores

2. Change all scores to z-scores

3. Divide by the number of people in the study

4. Figure the cross-product of the z-scores for each person

1, 2, 3, 4 |
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2, 1, 4, 3 |
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2, 4, 1, 3 |
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4, 3, 1, 2 |

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